This is the first major settlement that would develop on the site of later Constantinople, but the first known settlements was that of Lygos, referred to in Pliny's Natural Histories.

set up their dwellings at the place where the rivers Kydaros and Barbyses have their estuaries, one flowing from the north, the other from the west, and merging with the sea at the altar of the nymph called Semestre", The city maintained independence as a city-state until it was annexed by Darius I in 512 BC into the Persian Empire, who saw the site as the optimal location to construct a pontoon bridge crossing into Europe as Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus strait. It was closer to the geographic center of the Empire. However, sometimes this rivalry leads to street fighting and once, in 532, a full out riot.

During the Byzantine Empire era.

According to Russian 14th-century traveler Stephen of Novgorod: "As for Hagia Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it.". The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. For its predecessor in Greek and early Roman times, see, "Constantinopolis" and "Konstantinopolis" redirect here.

[95][97], Capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire, This article is about the historical city from 330 to 1453.

The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the defensive chain protecting the Golden Horn, and entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled. p. 24, line 387, Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 247, Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 248, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Lewis, Bernard. "The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City." They rushed in a howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the wine-cellars [...] .

In the second reading he is taking advantage of the people. [30] This treaty would pay dividends retrospectively as Byzantium would maintain this independent status, and prosper under peace and stability in the Pax Romana, for nearly three centuries until the late 2nd century AD.[31].

Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324[6] on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara. This was the great cathedral of the city, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. 0 0. It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass-destruction in western Europe and north Africa: On the city's fall, thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world.

From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese, lined with colonnades. The city is the world’s only metropolis to be on more than one continent. In similar fashion, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. 1 on p. 49. ", "Μεγάλη διαδικτυακή εγκυκλοπαίδεια της Κωνσταντινούπολης", "The Catholic Church in Constantinople, 1204-1453", "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E. [60] In response to a call for aid from Alexius, the First Crusade assembled at Constantinople in 1096, but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for Jerusalem on its own account. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249.

The strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea was a major advantage as well. It is to these that E.H. [85] Mehmed issued orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and Jews should resettle the city, with Christans and Jews relegated to second class citizens and required to pay jizya; he demanded that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September. After that, as part of the 1920s Turkification movement, Turkey started to urge other countries to use Turkish names for Turkish cities, instead of other transliterations to Latin script that had been used in Ottoman times. p. 236. So, all trade between North Africa, Asia and Europe, had to pass through the capital (Constantinople), causing the Byzantine Empire to become very wealthy due to taxes they charged between the trading.

[63] In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews.

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constantinople geography advantages

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