In January 1204, the protovestiarius Alexius Murzuphlus provoked a riot, it is presumed, to intimidate Alexius IV, but whose only result was the destruction of the great statue of Athena Promachos, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum facing west.
It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor, and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers. At the time, the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city..
a narrow strip of the Thracian shore at the mouth of the Pontos, Ball (2016), pp.
Swift attributed the construction of a series of flying buttresses to shore up the walls of the church, which had been weakened over the centuries by earthquake tremors. The Walls of Constantinople AD 324-1453, by Stephen R. Turnbull. Toward the end of Manuel I Komnenos's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000–80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people. In the course of a plot between Philip of Swabia, Boniface of Montferrat and the Doge of Venice, the Fourth Crusade was, despite papal excommunication, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the claims of Alexius, son of the deposed emperor Isaac. [better source needed] This name was used in Turkish alongside Kostantiniyye, the more formal adaptation of the original Constantinople, during the period of Ottoman rule, while western languages mostly continued to refer to the city as Constantinople until the early 20th century. At its peak, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean. , In 980, the emperor Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir of Kyiv: 6,000 Varangian warriors, which Basil formed into a new bodyguard known as the Varangian Guard. Korolija Fontana-Giusti, Gordana 'The Urban Language of Early Constantinople: The Changing Roles of the Arts and Architecture in the Formation of the New Capital and the New Consciousness' in, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 23:09.  As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, and its wealth, population, and influence grew, the city also came to have a multitude of nicknames. Constantine, the early fourth-century emperor known for encouraging Christianity in the Roman Empire, enlarged the earlier city of Byzantium, in CE 328.
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, The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century.
Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. The later Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men, Byzas and Antes, though this was more likely just a play on the word Byzantion..
Oryphas, the admiral of the Byzantine fleet, alerted the emperor Michael, who promptly put the invaders to flight; but the suddenness and savagery of the onslaught made a deep impression on the citizens. Projection: Unknown, Source Bounding Coordinates: W: E: N: S: Main Map Page. J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, p. 75.
The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus accepted them.
One of the big advantages of the Byzantine Empire, was that its capital, Constantinople.  The Chinese histories even related how the city had been besieged in the 7th century by Muawiyah I and how he exacted tribute in a peace settlement.
The emperor Justinian I (527–565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. The citizens lost their right to free grain in 618 when Heraclius realised that the city could no longer be supplied from Egypt as a result of the Persian wars: the population fell substantially as a result.
", The Nicaean emperor John III Vatatzes reportedly saved several churches from being dismantled for their valuable building materials; by sending money to the Latins "to buy them off" (exonesamenos), he prevented the destruction of several churches. Get step-by-step explanations, verified by experts. Christianity. For three days the ghastly scenes [...] continued, till the huge and beautiful city was a shambles.
This is the first major settlement that would develop on the site of later Constantinople, but the first known settlements was that of Lygos, referred to in Pliny's Natural Histories.
set up their dwellings at the place where the rivers Kydaros and Barbyses have their estuaries, one flowing from the north, the other from the west, and merging with the sea at the altar of the nymph called Semestre", The city maintained independence as a city-state until it was annexed by Darius I in 512 BC into the Persian Empire, who saw the site as the optimal location to construct a pontoon bridge crossing into Europe as Byzantium was situated at the narrowest point in the Bosphorus strait. It was closer to the geographic center of the Empire. However, sometimes this rivalry leads to street fighting and once, in 532, a full out riot.
During the Byzantine Empire era.
According to Russian 14th-century traveler Stephen of Novgorod: "As for Hagia Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it.". The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. For its predecessor in Greek and early Roman times, see, "Constantinopolis" and "Konstantinopolis" redirect here.
, Capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire, This article is about the historical city from 330 to 1453.
The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the defensive chain protecting the Golden Horn, and entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled. p. 24, line 387, Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 247, Talbot, "Restoration of Constantinople", p. 248, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Lewis, Bernard. "The Policy of Mehmed II toward the Greek Population of Istanbul and the Byzantine Buildings of the City." They rushed in a howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the wine-cellars [...] .
In the second reading he is taking advantage of the people.  This treaty would pay dividends retrospectively as Byzantium would maintain this independent status, and prosper under peace and stability in the Pax Romana, for nearly three centuries until the late 2nd century AD..
Constantinople was founded by the Roman Emperor Constantine I (272–337) in 324 on the site of an already-existing city, Byzantium, which was settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, in around 657 BC, by colonists of the city-state of Megara. This was the great cathedral of the city, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets. 0 0. It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass-destruction in western Europe and north Africa: On the city's fall, thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world.
From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese, lined with colonnades. The city is the world’s only metropolis to be on more than one continent. In similar fashion, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets. 1 on p. 49. ", "Μεγάλη διαδικτυακή εγκυκλοπαίδεια της Κωνσταντινούπολης", "The Catholic Church in Constantinople, 1204-1453", "East Asian History Sourcebook: Chinese Accounts of Rome, Byzantium and the Middle East, c. 91 B.C.E.  In response to a call for aid from Alexius, the First Crusade assembled at Constantinople in 1096, but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for Jerusalem on its own account. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23, (1969): 229–249.
The strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea was a major advantage as well. It is to these that E.H.  Mehmed issued orders across his empire that Muslims, Christians, and Jews should resettle the city, with Christans and Jews relegated to second class citizens and required to pay jizya; he demanded that five thousand households needed to be transferred to Constantinople by September. After that, as part of the 1920s Turkification movement, Turkey started to urge other countries to use Turkish names for Turkish cities, instead of other transliterations to Latin script that had been used in Ottoman times. p. 236. So, all trade between North Africa, Asia and Europe, had to pass through the capital (Constantinople), causing the Byzantine Empire to become very wealthy due to taxes they charged between the trading.
 In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews.
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