While there is no evidence of differential treatment of female defendants in violent offence cases, the results presented in Columns (5)–(9) are strongly suggestive that adding females to the jury pool decreases conviction rates for female defendants charged with ‘other’ offences. This article takes advantage of a novel data set and a historical jury reform to study the effect of female jurors on real‐world jury verdicts – a difficult question to study today given that seated juries are not random and that jury pools and seated juries are typically about 50% female. *10%, **5%, ***1%. Turning to case outcomes, of the 2,148 trials for which a jury was seated, 3% resulted in a hung jury on at least one offence and 8% were dismissed by the judge for any reason (including a hung jury) before the jury made a verdict (it is unclear at what stage in the trial some of these cases were dismissed). These clues lead them to discuss Minnie's abusive and authoritarian husband, and to sympathise with her desperation. All specifications control for whether the case is after the main post‐reform period. Given that we are estimating the pre‐post impact of the reform on conviction rates, it is important to ask whether anything else changed at the time of the reform, which would contaminate the pre‐post design. Table 1 presents summary statistics for jury trials overall, and broken down by court. The list indicated each individual's name as well as some additional information (e.g. Studies using post‐verdict survey data in the US generally find little or no evidence of a gender effect.77 Most men rejected both arguments, insisting that women were not suited intellectually or emotionally for jury service and, if allowed to serve, family, femininity, and the constitutional order itself would be undermined.

This tends to diminish gender differences among those selected relative to the larger population of qualified candidates. To begin to get at the potential importance of the female saliency of the case, we look directly at whether there was a differential effect of the reform on convictions for cases with at least one female victim. In contrast, male professions range from professional (accountants, stockbrokers, engineers), to retailers, manufacturers, manual labourers and artists; more than 10%, however, are classified as gentlemen. Debate regarding both the suitability and potential impact of female jurors continued over the following years. The main ‘other property offense’ is receiving stolen goods. If the ladies of the jury, or any one of them, desires to remain in that body so be it, but if the ladies prefer that their places be taken by men I will assent to their request’. Generally, plea cases are more minor; defendants tend to be charged with property rather than violent offences, they do not/cannot result in a death sentence, and there are fewer total charges. It will involve sexual points of the gravest indelicacy – questions which even men would hesitate to discuss amongst themselves. It took the six-man jury only twenty-five minutes to find Hoyt guilty of second-degree murder. Columns (6)–(8) demonstrate robustness to alternative post‐reform windows. One potential explanation is that all else equal (i.e.

Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. The first exercise utilises a sub‐sample of cases that were decided by ‘repeat juries’, i.e. Perhaps more importantly, the pre‐post design also does not allow us to say anything about the effect of each additional seated female on the jury. The question of whether female representation on juries affects verdicts has been raised by the popular press both today and at the time of the ‘great experiment’ – the term used by newspapers during the period to characterise the new eligibility of female jurors. Second, judges might request an all‐male jury because of the ‘sensitive’ nature of the case; a signal about the case that might influence the deliberations and behaviour of the seated male jurors. More specifically, a juror should: Attorney names were typically listed in the margins, but in most instances, they were too hard to read to confidently code; ‘undefended’ was clearly indicated however. *10%, **%, ***1%. (Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act of 1919). We find that each additional female seated significantly increases the likelihood of conviction on female victim offences by more than 10 percentage points on average, whereas the number of seated females do not directly affect the conviction rate for male victim cases. Other case characteristics 1 include victim characteristics (male, female, no and child), defendant gender, number of defendants, codefendnat id, no.

If the original jury does not reach a verdict, which must be unanimous, the guidelines indicate that a new jury should be drawn, without returning the original juror cards to the box. During the time period studied, the London courts held monthly sessions, which typically lasted for two to three weeks. Gender differences in altruism, The role of age in jury selection and trial outcomes, Politics in the courtroom: political ideology and jury decision making. At the same time, similar movements were taking off around the US; Utah became the first state in 1898 to authorise women to participate on juries but three states (Alabama, Mississippi and South Carolina) banned female jurors as late as 1962. Mills and Bohannon (1980) report similar findings for the US. Burglary includes burglary as well as having the tools for burglary.

This master list was brought into use on 1 January of the following year, and used for one year.1414 His wife Minnie Wright has been arrested as the prime suspect.

Yet, as mentioned above, the effect of the reform is seen for both types of sex offences.

JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. ,4444 This Section seeks to look directly at the relationship between the number of seated female jurors and verdicts. The main analysis presented below uses a pre‐post research design that compares conviction rates by juries before and after The Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act of 1919 to study the impact of adding females to the jury pool on conviction rates. … Can woman, in short, suddenly divorce herself from temperamental inconsequence and from the compassionate and emotional instincts on which she often acts, and become in a moment a hard, matter‐of‐fact analytical administrator of the strict letter of the law?’ In response to such comments, Sir Robert Wallace, is quoted as saying that he ‘found women excellent as jurors, and has no complaints against them’. These results suggest that it is not just the presence of any females that affect the verdicts, but that there is added influence of additional female voices during deliberations.4747

An important consideration in weighing these possibilities, however, is that juries were still overwhelmingly male after the reform, requiring female jurors to affect the votes of a large number of male colleagues in order to impact trial outcomes. With respect to gender, the focus of this paper, we identify juror gender, victim gender and defendant gender on the basis of names. This table looks at the effect of having at least one seated female juror (panel (. Our primary empirical analysis is based on a comparison of verdicts from the full set of trials before and after the introduction of the reform.

We expect issues involving the non‐random seating of female jurors to be muted in these cases and, in fact, the gender composition of repeated juries’ is not correlated with the gender of the victim in violent crime cases. Though these relationships are not significant when just controlling for the vector of offence type, the negative coefficients persist with the full set of controls and become significant for violent offences and property offences. In contrast, our analysis estimates the impact of including female jurors on what had been all‐male juries, providing a sharper and more meaningful comparison for assessing the broad impact of female representation. and administration review or supervision. Of course, the definition of ‘peers’ has changed tremendously over time, as eligibility criteria for jury service have become increasingly inclusive along the dimensions of age, wealth, race and gender. Law & Literature. Beyond the elementary issues of fairness and representation, proponents of greater female participation in government and politics argue that such inclusion alters the broad focus of policy, the collective functioning of legislative bodies, and executive decision‐making.11

The cases analysed in this study are drawn from London and the surrounding suburbs in the 1920s. This exercise yields the same basic results as our main pre‐post reduced form analysis: the addition of females to the seated jury significantly increases the chance of conviction for sex offences and decreases (marginally significant) the chance of conviction for property offences. Each issue contains material written by student members of the Law Review, other Stanford law students, and outside contributors, such as law professors, judges, and practicing lawyers.

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